Evaluating a Blockchain-based Method for Industrial IoT Data Confidentiality: Proof of Concept

Evaluating a Blockchain-based Method for Industrial IoT Data Confidentiality: Proof of Concept Utilizing the Internet of Things in the industry has led to an event called IIoT (Industrial Internet of Things) due to make smart cities, communication routes, smart grids, etc. IIoT deals with various sensors, devices scattered on the edges, and cloud servers by […]

secure gateway-trusted virtual domain

Edge Centric IoT Security

Edge Centric IoT Security Part 1 Security is an important concept that could be examined from different angles. Although we expect IoT applications to have strong system security protections, securing IoT systems is still a challenge. As I studied before, There are some points of view to check out IoT security challenges such as User-Centric, […]

اینترنت اشیای صنعتی-IIoT

اینترنت اشیای صنعتی- (IIoT) به زبان ساده!؟

Identify the IIoT (Industrial IoT) با پیشرفت مرزهای تکنولوژی؛ به نظر میرسد مرزهای نیازهای انسان هم جابجا شده است.یعنی ظاهرا نیازهای ما پتانسیل ان را دارند که بطور واقع بینانه ای وابسته به تکنولوژی باشند! به همین دلیل اتصال دستگاه های ریز و درشت به همدیگر -در یک حوزه و برای یک هدف خاص-با کمک […]

محل تحلیل داده ها در لبه شبکه بهتر نیست؟!

Data Analysis In Edge-Side در این نوشته میخواهم بصورت اجمالی درمورد سرنوشت داده ای که از سنسور خارج می شود صحبت کنم. اینکه داده پس از جذب توسط حسگرها وانتقال دقیقا چه مراحلی را طی می کند؟! در واقع باید روشن شود که مفهوم تحلیل داده ها در لبه شبکه ؛ یعنی چه. در مطلبی […]

پدافند سایبری CyberSecurity with criminal law

امـروزه فـنآوری اطـلاعات ایجاد ارزشهای جدیدی را در جامعه باعث میشود، که حمایت از آنها نیازمند ضمانت اجراهای کیفری است .اما طـبق اصول کلی حاکم بر سیاست جنایی، همواره پیشگیری و ارائه ی راهکارهای غیرکیفری موثرتر و سودمندتر از مـبارزه و مجازات است .پیشگیری در جرایم سایبری، زمانی ثمربخش خواهدبود، که الگوهای پیشگیری سایبری به […]

Lottery Algorithm in Cloud Computing

Cloud computing as a pattern for distributed computing, are composed of large shrimp ask combined resources with the goal of resource sharing as a service, on the internet. Such resources as in memory, processor and services are always worth and more efficient use of these, is endless challenge Hence the scheduling of tasks in cloud […]

Lottery Algorithm in Cloud Computing

Cloud computing as a pattern for distributed computing, are composed of large shrimp ask combined resources with the goal of resource sharing as a service, on the internet. Such resources as in memory, processor and services are always worth and more efficient use of these, is endless challenge Hence the scheduling of tasks in cloud […]

داده های کلان در شبکه های اجتماعی Big Data: Social Media

Big Data: Social Media in Attendance or Betrayal Fast development of smart devices and application encouraging more people to profit of mobile application. Despite the advantages of mobile application in different domain, participating in social networking and sharing personal information with unknown members bring privacy and security risk which most users are unaware about them. […]

اعتمادسازی در گره های حسگر بی سیم Trust in WSN

An old-fashion study about trust in wireless sensor networks and offer a new resolve to management the battery energy of nodes When we hear about universal communications and technologies promotion, unconsciously, distant borders and how confidence in this type of communication challenges the minds. The challenge of its kind in recent years, has been creating […]

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Edge Centric IoT Security

Part 2

In the previous post(part 1), I explained what the strength and weakness of Data-Centric Security at IoT architecture. Now I’m going to inspect the “Edge” capability on the security point of view. An intelligent factor may be more involved in designing a security architecture with edge centrality.

There are 4 sections for Edge-Centric architecture: end devices – users – cloud and finally the edge. As I mentioned before the Users are dealing with IoT apps that aim for a comfortable life that they actually rely on instead of just getting the service they want. Technology is lined up for them from the server or service edge. The End Devices are embedded in the physical part that senses the environment but can not perform heavy computational tasks. The Cloud has unlimited resources but is too far away and sometimes doesn’t cost-effective in real-time applications but at the moment this is the responsibility of the Cloud, definitely, there would better choice if we can bring the Edge in this architecture.

Constraints cause changes

The relationship between Cloud and Edge can be dependent (in collaboration) or independent (all responsibility lies with the edge). Collaboratively, the cloud performs dl based on Big data, and the learned model can be used by the edge to provide better services to end-users. Independently, the edge will do many tasks as storing, computing, and so on. Edge-centric design and architecture seem to be optimal (in terms of security) because compared to End Devices:
1. The edge layer has more resources, so security computational operations such as homomorphic encryption, attributed-based access control, etc. occur in the edge layer. 2-The edge layer is physically closer to the end device, which is useful in real-time security design demands.

3. The Edge layer collects and stores data. So compared to the end device, it is a better place to make security decisions. for instance, with the Big data the edge layer detects unauthorized interference more efficiently. 4- Considering the maintenance costs, resource constraints, and sheer numbers of end devices, it isn’t cost-effective to deploying firewall on end devices but should be implemented on the edge.

Edge Centric IoT Security

Edge Centric IoT Security

Part 1

Security is an important concept that could be examined from different angles. Although we expect IoT applications to have strong system security protections, securing IoT systems is still a challenge. As I studied before, There are some points of view to check out IoT security challenges such as User-Centric, Edge-Centric, Device-Centric. In this article, I’m going to investigate Edge-Centric IoT security.

There are many factors to overcome IoT security challenges such as recourse limitation and not enough secure design. In organization’s point of view there must be some secure mechanisms including advanced security algorithms which are following:

1-Attributed-base Access Control 2-Group Signature Authentication 3-Homomorphic Cryptography 4-Public Key-based solutions

IoT Devices Capability for Security Orchestration

These solutions demand ultra computing power and more memory space for devices to doing tasks and most of the time these aren’t suitable and capable of IoT end devices such as smart cameras, smart lockers, etc. in the contrast the cloud has unlimited resources but the cause of distance from end devices, providing the QoS for IoT end devices isn’t effective thus recently the edge-Centric security for IoT has been emphasized. This is a novel paradigm that improves IoT performance and would provide security solutions for end devices.

Edge Centric Architect of IoT

based on an article I have recently studied(Kewei Sha et.al ,”A Survey of edge computing-based designs for IoT security), The Edge-Centric IoT architecture contains four major parts: the cloud, the IoT end device, the edge and users. Users are the same IoT applications which lead us to easier life based on cloud/edge side services are provided to them. The end devices are embedded in physical section sense the world but they are not able to do powerful computing. The cloud has unlimited resources but are far from end devices thus are not cost effective for real-time applications. The edge if is the main center of IoT technology, the cost effective issue become lighter.

Design IoT Security based on Edge

The comprehensive design solutions in the edge layer include 3 parts: 1-User-Centric 2-Device-Centric 3-End-to-End security.

User-Centric: If IoT user got satisfied, It’s done 🙂 This is a known rule for being a success on IoT. By thousands of IoT connected devices on the internet scale, IoT applications take a chance to provide user access to a lot of resources with the terminals such as PCs, smartphones, and smart TVs. The most interesting property of IoT applications is pervasive availability to the resources. but in the security objective, two things must be considered. First: the user always may not use a secure and reliable device and second, ordinary users do not have efficient knowledge about security management.

Therefore the management of security for each user is not a bad idea and has some outcomes. 1-Design of personal security architecture 2-Virtualized security on the edge network. as the this link presents, when an individual user wants to access resources from different devices, first is connected to a Trusted Virtual Domain(TVD) in edge-side. then TVD handles secure access to IoT resources.

User-Centric edge-based IoT security architecture

I’ll talk more on the next post.

Lottery Algorithm in Cloud Computing

Cloud computing as a pattern for distributed computing, are composed of large shrimp ask combined resources with the goal of resource sharing as a service, on the internet. Such resources as in memory, processor and services are always worth and more efficient use of these, is endless challenge

Hence the scheduling of tasks in cloud computing is very important that try to determine an efficient scheduling and source allocation. In fact, the goal is determining a processing resource from set of resources that a task needs for process, so that can process more jobs in less time. Scheduling system controls different functions in cloud system for increasing job completion rate, resource efficiency and in consequence increasing the computing power. In this study, we provide approach base on lottery algorithm to reach those goals with minimize make-span time. Simulation of proposed method is by “CloudSim” application

The Proposed method:

As noted earlier in task timing issues in cloud computing, the output is a proper mapping of tasks to resources. So that parameters such as response time, make-span time and performance of data centers, are optimized. In this report, we present a new algorithm based on lottery algorithm. The proposed algorithm has evolutionary view and most prominent characteristic of it is being agile. Stages of it are as follows:

First step: number of answers is created randomly, which either is discussed as a participant in proposed method.

Second step: the propriety of each participant is measured :

Fi=value obtained for task i Tlen=length of ith task

Rw=workloads that are already on the CPU which ith task is allocated for it

NCC=communication cost for the selected virtual machine for ith task or data broker Fitness total=the answer fitness

Third step: each participant assigned a fitness based on the number of sheets. Indeed, participants who had more points will have more sheets. Forth step: lottery is done. There is one win rate equal to 0.8. indeed, what it means is that in each iteration 80% of current stage’s participants are transported to new stage. 20% of the initial population consist of participants. For lottery, we have used randomly numbers with uniform dispatch. Fifth step: we check end condition in this stage. In our proposed method, the end condition is specific number of repetition, but we can consider the end condition near an optimal condition.

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